Social Studies Notes : Ch. 22 & 23

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Explore significant historical events and ideas such as nationalism, industrialism, and political reform. Learn about influential figures like Marie Curie, James Watt, and Simon Bolivar. Understand the impact of the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution on society. Discover the connections between these events and the rise of liberalism and utilitarianism.

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  1. Social Studies Notes Ch. 22 & 23

  2. 1)In the United States, Nationalism led to westward expansion. 2) Marie Curie discovered the radioactive element radium.

  3. 3) Political ideas in the mid- 1880 s that helped shape Europe were nationalism and political reform.

  4. 4) James Hargreaves - invented the spinning jenny 5) Capital - money invested in a business

  5. 6) Economic system based on the use of machinery for production of goods - industrialism 7) Discovered a way to use coal to turn iron ore into pure iron - Henry Cort

  6. 8) Designed a steam engine to power machines - James Watt 9) William Gladstone - led the liberal party

  7. 10) Otto von Bismarck - prime minister who tried to unite Germany 11) Simon Bolivar - South American military leader who led the fight for freedom from Spain

  8. 12) abolitionism - the movement to end slavery 13) Giuseppe Garibaldi - the revolutionary leader who was a master of guerrilla warfare

  9. 14) American idea that the country should stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Manifest Destiny

  10. 15) Catholic clergy or church officials in France ion 1700 s - First Estate 16) British laws that inflamed American colonists to work together to defend their liberties - Intolerable Acts

  11. 17) Idea that society should be able to provide the greatest happiness for the largest number of people - utilitarianism

  12. 18) French document stating that the power of government came from the people - Intolerable Acts 19) site where Britain s Duke of Wellington defeated the French - Waterloo

  13. 20) Formed the National Assembly to write a Constitution for France - the Third Estate 21) the middle class - bourgeoisie

  14. 22) general who crowned himself emperor of France - Napoleon Bonaparte 23) Lawyer who tried to create a Republic of Virtue: but instead established the Reign of Terror - Maximilien Robespierre

  15. 24) By the early 1700s, how many colonies did England have along the Atlantic Coast? thirteen 25) Ptolemy s geocentric, or Earth- centered, theory was accepted in Europe for over 1400 years.

  16. 26) Observed that plants and animals change over time in order to adapt and survive - Charles Darwin

  17. 27) The belief that all people have basic rights of equality and freedom of speech - liberalism 28) The Industrial Revolution began official in Great Britain.

  18. 29) This ruler was one of Russias most powerful czars. Peter the Great 30) The final victory for the colonists in the war for independence against Britain was the Battle of Yorktown.

  19. 31) If an astronomers hypotheses fit with calculations and observations, the astronomer s work is sufficient.

  20. 32) Which two countries remained undefeated by Napoleon? Britain and Russia 33) What was the goal of the Congress of Vienna? Returning Europe to a state of Peace and stability after a long period of war

  21. 34) One important cause of the Industrial Revolution was a movement that allowed landowners to fence off their land, called. Returning Europe to a state of peace and stability after a long period of war.

  22. 35) One important cause of the Industrial Revolution was a movement that allowed landowners to fence off their land, called enclosure laws.

  23. 36) What carried raw materials, finished goods, and people faster and cheaper than any other early invention? steam-powered boat 37) A business that raises money by selling shares to investors is called a corporation.

  24. 38) Which was an English thinker who developed the scientific method? Francis Bacon 39) Which early scientist theorized that the planets moved in an elliptical orbit, or oval- like path, around the sun? Jahannes Kepler

  25. 40) Entrepreneurs took on financial risks and created industries by bringing together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions.

  26. 41) Catherine the Great of Russia allowed nobles to dominate the serfs. 42) In the late 1700 s, the National Convention ended the monarchy and made France a(n) republic.

  27. 43) People who listened to the speeches were surprised and upset that a girl would speak up. 44) In the 1700 s, the frustrations of poor french people were a cause of the French Revolution.

  28. 45) Thomas HObbes and John Locke differed in their views of how the government was influenced by natural law.

  29. 46) Which two natural resources did Great Britain have in large supply that helped fuel the rise of industry there? 47) Why did revolutions sweep across Europe in 1848? People wanted democratic and nationalistic reform.

  30. 48) One English writer who was a strong supporter of women s rights was Mary Wollstonecraft. 49) Because classical thinkers often based their conclusions on common sense, some of their beliefs were false.