HTN: Hypertension

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Dr. Anna Haro will discuss the definition, causes, and risk factors of hypertension for students at Westside High School in February 2023.

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  1. HTN: Hypertension Westside High School Dr. Anna Haro February 2023

  2. LEARNING Objectives TEKS: 130.233.(c)(1)(A, & B) and 130.233.(c)(2)(A, B, C, F, & G) & (3)(B) Students will apply prior knowledge and skills from biology to develop new knowledge and skills. Students will develop new knowledge and skills of medical terminology related to the disorders of the cardiovascular system: hypertension.

  3. Objetivos de aprendizaje TEKS: 130.233.(c)(1)(A, & B) and 130.233.(c)(2)(A, B, C, F, & G) & (3)(B) Los estudiantes aplicar n conocimientos y habilidades previos de la biolog a para desarrollar nuevos conocimientos y habilidades. Los estudiantes desarrollar n nuevos conocimientos y habilidades de la terminolog a m dica relacionada con los trastornos del sistema cardiovascular: hipertensi n.

  4. Outline Definition of HTN BP values Fraction/Ratio/Something else Systolic vs. Diastolic BP HTN sx The Silent Killer Causes Risk Factors modifiable vs. non-modifiable

  5. HTN = hypertension What is HTN? Hyper means _______________ Tension = pressure Hypertension means the blood pressure or BP is too high. The pressure on the interior walls of the blood vessels exerts too much force.

  6. Defining blood pressure values Discussion question: is BP fraction or a ratio or something else? There are two numbers or two distinct measurements for BP, the systolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure. BP = SBP/DBP (systolic over diastolic) This is NOT a fraction and it is NOT a ratio, there are two distinct measurements.

  7. Defining blood pressure values Normal BP = 120/80 mmHg HTN is when BP > 140/90 mmHg Low BP < 90/60mmHg The BP range between 120/80 mmHg and 140/90 mmHg is considered borderline

  8. Why isnt BP a fraction? BP = SBP/DBP Systolic blood pressure is the pressure against the blood vessels when the heart is contracting (pumping blood) What part(s) of the heart is responsible for pumping? Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure against the blood vessels when the heart is relaxing (filling with blood) Discussion question: Which number will be higher? Diastolic or Systolic???

  9. Systolic BP Systolic blood pressure (the number on top) is ALWAYS greater than the diastolic blood pressure. Why? When the heart contracts, it pumps blood to the rest of the body. This takes more pressure to pump blood. When the heart relaxes, the heart fills with blood. Discussion question: Why is there blood pressure when the heart relaxes?

  10. Sx of HTN HTN or hypertension means the blood pressure is too high. Normal BP = 120/80mmHg HTN is when BP > 140/90 mmHg Low BP < 90/60mmHg Discussion question: What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

  11. The silent killer HTN usually does not have any symptoms. However, when BP is too high, the patient is at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as acute myocardial infarction or AMI, also known as a ______ ______. HTN increases risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and can lead to stroke and premature death. Since there are no symptoms associated with HTN, but HTN can lead to death, then it is often called the silent killer.

  12. HTN Causes Primary Hypertension for most patients, there is no specific cause. Rather, as patients get older, their blood pressure increases naturally with aging. This is the primary cause of HTN. Secondary Hypertension for some patients, HTN is caused by another underlying disease or substance. (kidney, thyroid, adrenal glands, sleep-problems, medically-induced, or drug induced, ex. Cocaine and other stimulants)

  13. Risk Factors What factors increase the patient s BP? Non-modifiable: Age, race, FHx Disease: Kidney disease, sleep apnea, DM What risk factors are modifiable?

  14. Modifiable Risk Factors Modifiable: Smoking Overweight or obese Excessive alcohol use Physical inactivity Uncontrolled DM Diet = too much salt or sodium (NaCl) Illegal drug use (cocaine = vaso-constriction)

  15. HTN Your pt doesn t feel high blood pressure, but they have some of the risk factors. What can you recommend? Get BP checked. Starting at age 3, every annual check up should include BP. (It is one of the 5 VS.) Free public BP machines throughout pharmacies and health clinics. These are estimates, need to consider cuff size and other factors.

  16. Questions What questions do you have for me??? Email, remind, or use TEAMs chat.

  17. Measuring BP (we will learn and practice this skill) Handle equipment with care. The BP devices comes with 3 parts: 1. Stethoscope: the ear inserts, tube and drum 2. Blood pressure cuff: should fit close to size (pedi vs. adult vs. L) use Velcro to hold into place with a snug fit. 3. Sphygmomanometer: the measuring dial (this is where the numbers are located)

  18. Friday, February 20, 2023 Today, you will work on your SOAP Note Major Grade (due next Friday) On Monday, you should be able to answer: how old is your pt, what age, what 3 diseases do they have? What lab results do you have and what are their medical problems? Hey Juniors, IMPORTANT!!!! The practicum meetings are next week. Interested students must attend one. Contact if you have any questions. Where: S110 Tuesday, 2/14, 12:10 12:30 pm Thursday, 2/16, 11:45 12:05 pm Friday, 2/17, 12:10 12:30 pm


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