SYNTACTIC CONSTRUCTIONS (I)

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Different types of syntactic constructions, including endocentric and exocentric constructions, and the classification based on the grammatical relations between constituents. It also discusses the various levels of syntactic analysis, such as phrases, clauses, and sentences. The article provides examples and explanations for each type of construction.


Uploaded on Dec 08, 2023 | 4 Views


SYNTACTIC CONSTRUCTIONS (I)

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  1. SYNTACTIC CONSTRUCTIONS (I)

  2. TYPES OF CONSTRUCTIONS Constructions 1. Endocentric (headed) Coordinate -additive -alternative -appositive Subordinate -attributre first -centre first Exocentric (non-headed) Directive Connective Predicational This classification is based on the type of grammatical relation between the constituents.

  3. Types of constructions According to the level of syntactic analysis, constructions may be classified as: phrases (little birds) clauses (little birds tweet) sentences (if the sun shines, little birds tweet).

  4. Endocentric constructions : the whole construction belongs to the same class as at least one of its constituents, i.e., at least one element of the construction may perform the same syntactic function asthe whole construction: rich people : I know some (rich) people. men and women: I know some men (and women) .

  5. Exocentric construction DOES NOT belong to the same class as any of its constituents , therefore not one of its constituents may perform the same syntacticfunction as thewhole construction. (I must) visit Nancy. *I must visit. *I must Nancy. constructions : the whole

  6. Endocentric constructions: Coordinate Additive (and) men andwomen black andwhite One hundred and twenty (he) ran up andgreeted her We went to the cinema andour friends joined us. Alternative (or) Men orwomen Black orwhite Stay orgo They must come on time orwe shall be late (did she come) yesterday ortoday

  7. Appositive Petar Petrovi Njego , the author of the Mountain Wreath Queen Mary Dr Smith Professor Jones Lake Michigan

  8. Subordinate (attributive) constructions have a centre, i.e. the constituent that can assume the function of the whole construction; according to the distribution of their elements, they can be classified as: Attribute first, centre (big tree, very good, quite often) Centre first, attribute ( runquickly, secretary general) Attribute centre attribute (the happiest manin the world) Center attribute centre ( can never realize ) Several centres, one attribute (green trees and bushes) Several attributes,one centre (all this fresh milk on the table ) .

  9. Exocentric constructions Directive: relation between constituents - director ->axis Objective (Vtr+DO): saw John, wanted to go Prepositional (prep+ NP) from the beginning, at home Conjunctive (conj + Cl) : if he comes; because she wants to go Connective : relation between constituents - connector + predicative (NomPred) ; copula+complement (he ) is a big man became tired growimpatient seem satisified Predicational: relation between constituents : topic:comment , or S:P I don t like that man! That man, I just don t like! My glasses are broken! My glasses, they re all broken !

  10. Task: Identify the type of construction and the syntactic level to which it belongs: Doctor Jones An accident in an accident Hit the brakes Money or your life Doctor Jones was killed in an accident Because his car broke down Broke down Salt and pepper

  11. Recommended reading Matthews, P. H. (1996). Syntax. Cambridge: CUP. Stageberg, N. C., & Goodman, R. M. (1965). An introductory English grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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