Understanding Contextual Factors in Curriculum Development

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This chapter delves into the significance of internal and external contextual factors in shaping curriculum development. It discusses the process of gathering essential contextual data, identifying relevant sources, and integrating data to create an evidence-informed, context-relevant, unified curriculum. Key questions addressed include the influence of contextual factors on curriculum, determining essential data, and integrating core curriculum processes. Internal contextual factors such as mission, vision, philosophy, goals, and organizational culture are highlighted to emphasize their role in curriculum development.


Uploaded on Apr 16, 2024 | 4 Views


Understanding Contextual Factors in Curriculum Development

PowerPoint presentation about 'Understanding Contextual Factors in Curriculum Development'. This presentation describes the topic on This chapter delves into the significance of internal and external contextual factors in shaping curriculum development. It discusses the process of gathering essential contextual data, identifying relevant sources, and integrating data to create an evidence-informed, context-relevant, unified curriculum. Key questions addressed include the influence of contextual factors on curriculum, determining essential data, and integrating core curriculum processes. Internal contextual factors such as mission, vision, philosophy, goals, and organizational culture are highlighted to emphasize their role in curriculum development.. Download this presentation absolutely free.

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  1. Chapter 8 Data Gathering for an Evidence- Informed, Context-Relevant, Unified Curriculum

  2. Questions Addressed in This Chapter What are the internal and external contextual factors that influence curriculum? How are essential contextual data determined? How can relevant data sources be identified, and contextual data gathered?

  3. Questions Addressed in This Chapter What is the relationship between data gathering about contextual factors and an evidence-informed, context-relevant, unified curriculum? How are the core curriculum processes of faculty development, ongoing appraisal, and scholarship integrated into data gathering for curriculum development?

  4. Overview of Contextual Factors, and Gathering and Interpreting Contextual Data Contextual factors Include internal and external factors Some factors may blend and overlap Need precise definition of essential data relevant to each contextual factor Data gathering and interpretation Deduced from contextual data Used to describe desired traits of graduates

  5. Internal Contextual Factors Mission, vision, philosophy, and goals Mission Succinct statement Captures the institution s character Shapes multiple aspects of the school of nursing Nature Scope Boundaries of the mission Activities Curricula

  6. Internal Contextual Factors (cont.) Mission, vision, philosophy, and goals (cont.) Vision Mental image of what organization will achieve when accomplishing mission Philosophy Clearly articulated guiding principles Strategic goals and plans Directly reflect school s mission, vision, purpose, and values

  7. Internal Contextual Factors (cont.) Organizational culture and climate Culture An organization s way of being Unlikely to be explicitly stated Affects whole organization

  8. Internal Contextual Factors (cont.) Organizational culture and climate (cont.) Organizational climate Represents a manifestation of culture Includes shared perceptions and attached meanings Policies and procedures experienced by employees and others Observations of behaviors that are rewarded, supported, and expected Culture and climate evolve slowly over time

  9. Internal Contextual Factors (cont.) History Reveals past values, successes, challenges and curriculum development processes Relevant questions to consider When was institution founded, and why? Has mission, vision, purposes changed over time? How does school s history influence present? How have programs evolved? Were programs developed for niche market? What are school s unique features, programs?

  10. Internal Contextual Factors (cont.) Financial resources Can be most influential contextual factor Focus on costs created by redesigned curriculum Programs and policies Programs will influence curriculum design Non-nursing departmental programs/courses May be asset to curriculum designers May limit the scope of the nursing curriculum proposal

  11. Internal Contextual Factors (cont.) Infrastructure Human, physical, and organizational elements Forms structure of the institution and school of nursing Serves as foundation of educational programs

  12. Internal Contextual Factors (cont.) Infrastructure (cont.) Components: Human Resources Form the core of the curriculum Includes faculty members, students, stakeholders, support staff Physical Resources Includes space for classrooms, offices, laboratories, etc. Resources to support teaching and learning Includes libraries, faculty development services, student services, etc.

  13. External Contextual Factors Demographics Study of human populations Includes size, density, location, age, sex, race, occupation, etc. Demographic data Can influence healthcare delivery Can be used to align curriculum design with attributes of nursing care recipients

  14. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Demographic data pertinent to curriculum work Distribution according to age, sex, and location Birth, death, and fertility rates Population diversity Employment rates and income levels by age and sex Ethnicity Residence patterns (e.g., living alone, homeless, in nursing homes) Morbidity rates and patterns Family structures Population mobility Immigration and emigration patterns

  15. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Culture, Ethnicity, Language, and History Culture Way of life of a people Includes multiple considerations Attitudes Values Beliefs Arts Sciences Modes of perception Habits of thought and activity

  16. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Culture, Ethnicity, Language, and History Culture (cont.) Intimately tied to other characteristics Ethnicity, national group history, language Race and ethnicity May or may not be equated with a particular culture Culture of the healthcare system Includes entitlement to health services, etc. Respect for community culture Prerequisite when designing curriculum

  17. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Health and health care Health of people Influences nursing care Influences curriculum Healthcare system Shapes learning context for the student s professional practice Data collection by curriculum developers Settings/opportunities for learning experiences Current about healthcare delivery patterns

  18. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Professional standards and trends Trends and requirements Includes numerous current standards Health care Nursing practice Nursing education Serve as strong influences on curriculum

  19. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Educational and healthcare technology and informatics Technological advances affect nursing curricula Content Teaching-learning strategies Course delivery Course management Gather relevant technology and informatics data Education, healthcare, and expected developments

  20. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Environment Atmospheric, physical, biological, and psychological aspects of a community Include relevant data Weather patterns and effects of climate change Air and water quality Local industries known to produce pollutants Environmental disasters War and terrorism Newly emerging diseases and their spread

  21. External Contextual Factors (cont.) Social, political, and economic conditions Forces, situations, or circumstances in the external environment Can impact curriculum development Social behaviors, and issues that affect health E.g., drug use or unemployment Political, legislative influences E.g., support for nursing and nursing education Economic conditions, and projected government and private support for higher education

  22. Approaches to Gathering Contextual Data Data gathering Includes activities of obtaining information for curriculum development purposes Planning for data gathering Preliminary requirements Agreement about relevant contextual factors requiring investigation Identification of relevant data, data sources, and methods of obtaining information

  23. Approaches to Gathering Contextual Data (cont.) Deciding on necessary contextual data and data sources Which factors seem most germane? What are the precise data required? Potential utility of data for development process? Which data truly influence curriculum? What data is nice to know? How does data influence curriculum?

  24. Approaches to Gathering Contextual Data (cont.) Deciding on necessary contextual data and data sources (cont.) How accessible and available are the data? How quickly can data be gathered? Is acquisition of data so important that a delay in development can be justified? What are consequences of failing to gather data?

  25. Approaches to Gathering Contextual Data (cont.) Data gathering methods Important considerations Time available for data gathering in plan Time needed to locate extant documents, develop interview questions, gather and analyze data Developer expertise available related to data gathering and analysis Resources to support the endeavor

  26. Approaches to Gathering Contextual Data (cont.) Data gathering methods (cont.) Methods Literature and internet surveys Document and website reviews Key informant interviews Focus group interviews Surveys Delphi technique Consultations

  27. Approaches to Gathering Contextual Data (cont.) The work of data gathering May be given to a specific task force May be shared among curriculum developers Process recommendations Maintain central repository Allows accessibility of data for subsequent analysis Use methods that will speed analysis E.g., immediate computer entry of returned questionnaire responses by an administrative or research assistant, or use of web-based questionnaires

  28. Relationship of Gathering Contextual Data to an Evidence-Informed, Context- Relevant, Unified Curriculum Characteristics of an evidence-informed curriculum Based on systematically and purposefully gathered evidence Students, learning, teaching, and nursing education Clients and their responses to health situation Nursing practice Context in which curriculum will be offered Context in which graduates will practice nursing

  29. Relationship of Gathering Contextual Data to an Evidence-Informed, Context- Relevant, Unified Curriculum (cont.) Characteristics of a context-relevant curriculum Responsive to students, current and projected societal, health, and community situations, and imperatives of nursing profession Consistent with mission, philosophy, goals of the educational institution, and school of nursing Feasible within realities of school and community

  30. Relationship of Gathering Contextual Data to an Evidence-Informed, Context- Relevant, Unified Curriculum (cont.) Characteristics of a unified curriculum Curricular components are interrelated Conceptually Logically Cohesively Visibly

  31. Core Processes of Curriculum Work Faculty development Expand members appreciation and knowledge Emphasize relationship between contextual factors and development of evidence-informed, context- relevant, unified curriculum Ongoing appraisal Includes consideration of numerous questions throughout the data gathering process Scholarship Many opportunities related to gathering data

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